Allergic Rhinitis – Hay Fever
Allergia is a reaction to the substance that enters or touches the body, causing the body to harm itself. Nose is the most influenced organ from this type of allergic reactions. Allergia has a tendency of genetics and it can begin with every age. 2-3 minutes after the allergia enters the body a medicine which is called histamine will be released. In 15 minutes it will reach up to maximum level. Allergia can be seen all the time or in certain seasons.
What are the Factors for Allergia?
There are so many known or unknown factors that can cause allergy. For the most seen factors are the dust, pollens, mold fungus, some foods (milk, egg, strawberry, etc.), chemical materials and pets.
What kind of Complaints Can Occur?
The symptoms of allergia which is related to the ENT are runny nose, sneezing, nasal obstruction, itching, post-nasal drainage, having a sore in the throat, chronic cough and pressure in the middle ear. Sinuses, concha hypertrophy or polyp, asthma and skin reaction can be seen more in people who have allergies than people who do not have allergies.
What Are the Tests Used for Diagnosis?
After the examination when allergia is suspected, the most commonly used test are skin tests. However, negative results from these tests do not indicate that the patient is not allergic. There is a possibility of an allergic reaction in the skin tests that does not work or when an allergy enters the skin, it may be allergic when it enters the respiratory system. Skin tests can tell you how much allergia is to which substance. Besides these tests, amount of item, IgE, in the blood. Also, there are some blood tests that are more reliable than skin tests but difficult to apply and expensive. The most important allergia rhinitis diagnosis are what the patients explains (anamnesis) and examination findings. According to these findings, if the diagnosis of allergy is considered, the patient is considered as allergic. Skin tests and other blood tests are all about what an allergy is. Even if the results of these tests are negative, a patient still gets treated as allergia.
There are 4 main categories in Allergia Rhinitis
1. Allergen protection
2. Medicine treatment
3. Immunotherapy (vaccine treatment)
Protecting from allergia is the main method of allergia rhinitis. However, sometimes this can not be possible. Factors such as the inability to determine the allergen, the allergies more than one substance, and the inability of the patient to stay away from this substance, even if allergen is identified makes the treatment very difficult. However, there are some precautions that a patient can take.
The most used medicine in medicine treatment is antihistaminic. These medicines are aimed at reducing the histamine that plays a role in allergic reactions. Usually they are beneficial. It is more beneficial when it is used before the allergia expose. Specially it is beneficial for itch, flix and sneezing. However, which antihistamine is beneficial for a patient will be determined by trial and error. If the effect reduces then the antihistamine should be changed. The most important side effect of these medicines is dormancy, mouth dryness, heart throb, strangury, decrease pressure in eye. However, the side effects pretty much reduced for lasy generation antihistamines.
After the antihistamine the most useful medicine by belief is corticosteroids (cortizon). These medicines are more beneficial when taken by mouth or injection by thigh however the side effects are much more too. For this reason, it is used as nose spray. When it is used as a nose spray the side effects are less and effectiveness is better.
There are also nasal decongestants called decongestants and so called cromolynes which prevent allergic reactions.